Category: Theory, Terms & Abbreviations ¤
Author: Julie Daniels ¤
Title: R+, R-, P+, P- ¤
Subject: +/- R/P
Hi Everyone,
Lots of us understand this reinforcement/punishment matrix, but clearly
lots of us do not. Following is the 5-minute left-brain version of a
1-hr lecture I give many times a year. To right-brain this somewhat,
use a letter-size piece of paper and draw the diagram as I describe it.
My presentation has an encouraging title: *Behaviorism Made Simple: The
Daniels Model*. I've honed it for years, and this is the way I like
best. Hopefully this postcard version will help to clarify these
all-important terms. Here goes!
1) Draw a circle.
2) Draw a vertical bisecting line. Above the circle write "POSITIVE
(Add)". Below the circle write "NEGATIVE (Subtract)".
3) Draw a horizontal bisecting line. To the right of the circle write
"REINFORCEMENT (Increase a behavior)". To the left of the circle write
"PUNISHMENT (Decrease a behavior)".
4) Now you have 4 quadrants to label. In the top (POSITIVE) quadrants,
write "PP" (this stands for positive punishment) in the left quadrant
and, in the right, "PR" (positive reinforcement). In the bottom
(SUBTRACT) quadrants, write "NP" (negative punishment) in the left and
"NR" (negative reinforcement) on the right.
5) Write this description in each quadrant:
PP
PR
NP
NR
6) To verbalize and give an example by quadrant:
PP: How would you ADD a stimulus in order to DECREASE a behavior?
(Apply an aversive, such as a leash pop, to punish pulling)
PR: How might you ADD a stimulus in order to INCREASE a behavior?
(Apply a desired, such as a cookie, to reinforce sitting)
NP: How might you SUBTRACT something to DECREASE a behavior?
(Remove a desired, such as attention, to punish nipping)
NR: How might you SUBTRACT something to INCREASE a behavior?
(Remove an aversive, such as an ear pinch, to reinforce opening
the mouth)
Well, that's it in a nutshell! Simple, huh? Wish you were all here so
I could give the whole talk, with props, and get your feedback (whether
it positively reinforced interacting with me or negatively reinforced
leaving the room!). Anyway, I hope this cryptic bit helps someone.
Enjoy,
Julie Daniels